How Diabetes affects your dental health
Gum disease is the most common oral health problem among people with diabetes.
The first stage of gum disease is called gingivitis. This is when bacteria cause your gums to bleed, turn red, and feel sore.
If left untreated, gingivitis can turn into periodontitis, a more serious type of gum disease that erodes the bone and tissues that support your teeth. In the worst case, you might lose your teeth.If you don’t floss and brush regularly, bacteria and plaque can build up on your teeth. That causes your gums to pull away from them. It creates pockets where bacteria dig in and wage war on more and more parts of your mouth, including bones.Periodontitis can’t be reversed and can’t be treated with brushing and flossing alone. Your dentist will have to get involved. He may even send you to a specialist called a periodontist. Some people need gum surgery to save their teeth.
Both diabetes and older age (especially if you’re a woman) slow down saliva production. This puts you at risk for dry mouth, which your doctor might call xerostomia.
Saliva makes the enzymes that attack bacteria. Without it, bacteria grow unchecked.
Dry mouth can lead not only to sores and ulcers but also to even more tooth decay and gum disease.
Bacteria aren’t the only organisms that like sugar. So do fungi, which is why a fungal yeast infection called thrush is common in people with diabetes.
Thrush can cause white or red patches on your tongue and inside your cheeks. Sometimes they turn into open sores.
If you wear dentures, smoke, or take antibiotics, you may be even more likely to get thrush. The yeast thrives on the extra sugar in your saliva and especially likes moist spots like areas under loose-fitting dentures.
Thrush is just one kind of mouth infection diabetes puts you at risk for. There are others, including other fungal infections.
Burning Mouth Syndrome
Both thrush and dry mouth can lead to burning mouth syndrome. So can certain medications, including some for high blood pressure.In addition to feeling like you just scalded your mouth with coffee, your mouth could tingle or feel numb.You might lose some of your ability to taste. This can also result from aging.
This isn’t really harmful, unless you make up for the lack of taste by adding sugar to your food. That will boost your risk of cavities and gum disease.
Slow Wound Healing
You may have noticed that wounds and infections take longer to heal. That’s a byproduct of both diabetes and getting older.
At the same time, your risk of infection goes up. That plus slower healing means that if something does go wrong with your gums or teeth, it’ll take longer to get better. And it might get worse faster.
This can also be a problem after dental surgery.
If you keep your blood sugar in check and brush and floss daily as well as rinse with an antiseptic mouthwash, you’ll stop most tooth and gum disease before it has a chance to set in.